Optimising use of fertilisers
Les exemples recensés dans ce domaine vont de la recherche actuelle aux initiatives au sein des exploitations laitières.
Nutrient Management - David and Jane Homer, England
|Source : DairyCo|
David and Jane Homer farm in central southern England and have 220 milking cows yielding in the region of 10000 litres per annum.
The Homers were early adopters of carbon foot printing and use the outcomes of this as a management tool in the continued drive for increased efficency.
One of the key areas of focus over recent years has been the effective management of fertlisers, as although the cows have quite high yields, they are still generating much of their production from the grazing of fresh grass - hence whether it is grass or other forage crops the fertiliser regime needs to be as accurate as possible to ensure maximum production without depleting the natural resources.
Soil tests: All paddock on the farm are soil tested to establish the exact nutrient requirements.
Slurry analysis: To establish the nutrient content of natural fertiliser - slurry
Nutrient Management Plan: A Nutrient Management Plan is generated that matches the nutrient requirements (including the anticipated crop requirement) of the soil with the level of nutrient in the organic slurry based manure.
Slow and steady fertilizers may win the race - Roy and Clinton Roddau, Tin Can Bay, Australia
|Source : DairyingForTomorrow|
In 2007 when fertiliser prices started spiralling, the Roddau's switched from urea to chicken as the main source of nitrogen on their combined dairying and commercial flower farm. Initially a cost-cutting exercise this manure is now winning favour in terms of sustainability.
Manures are a slow-release fertiliser with the nutrients from one application of chicken manure each year being released over the next four years. About half of the remaining organic nitrogen is mineralised each year. Subsequently in 2009 trials were set up on Roddau's farm by the state Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries to compare ryergrass and kikuyu yields from manure (Entec) and urea fertiliser applications. The results were surprising - see the file below.
Farmyard manure and slurry use on clover swards – United Kingdom
|Source : DairyCo|
This DairyCo funded review considered all available research information and developed clear guidance on the management of slurry and farm yard manures on pastures containing optimal levels of clover. This review details how dairy farmers can maximise fertiliser potential, plant performance and reduce environmental impact. The findings will be incorporated into current DairyCo literature.
- Project completed: Winter 2010
Managing emissions of nitrogen - United Kingdom
|Source : Dairy UK|
Chris and Margy Hall farm 400 dairy cows near Brighouse in West Yorkshire. Their farm was one of 11 that agreed to undertake a pilot study by Kite Consulting to assess their on-farm GHG emissions.
“We should be buying 120 tonnes of nitrogen fertiliser for our farm, but because we use slurry and apply it carefully to the soil, we only need to buy in 80 tonnes,” said Margy Hall.
“That’s a 33% saving, both financially and environmentally.”
Silvopastoriles (planting trees and use of fertilisers) - Nicaragua
|Source : Ministerio Agropecuario y Forestal (MAGFOR)|
- Como ejemplos de esta política se presenta en primer lugar la estrategia de modelos productivos silvopastoriles, que no sólo frenan el desmonte sino que además promueve la recuperación de biomasa arbórea. Un componente clave de estos modelos productivos es la utilización de las llamadas “cercas vivas”, según se ilustra en una de las fotografías, así como la instalación de “bancos” de proteína a partir de plantaciones de leguminosas arbóreas y semi-arboreas.
- Como se mencionó, el concepto de sostenibilidad ambiental también se ha instalado en el diseño y operación de los centros de acopio. Precisamente, y como ejemplo de una actitud ambientalmente amigable, se ilustra el caso del centro de Pancasán, con un cartel que promueve el buen uso del recurso agua, sin desperdiciar la.
Las cooperativas lácteas de Argentina están comprometidas con una producción ambientalmente sostenible
|Source : Alejandro Galetto|
- La tecnología utilizada para la producción de pasturas, y también gran parte de los silajes, requiere de una proporción baja de insumos variables (fertilizantes, etc.) y en los últimos años, con la difusión de la siembra directa, se ha minimizado el laboreo de los suelos, mejorando al mismo tiempo sus propiedades físicas (penetración y retención de agua, principalmente).
- El pastoreo directo en gran parte de las fincas durante prácticamente todo el año garantiza además que las cuestiones de bienestar animal no entren en conflicto con el modelo productivo lechero que se practica en Argentina.
Optimising use of fertilisers and animal feeding - Colombia
|Source : FEDEGAN-FNG|
See files for the different examples of practices used in Colombia.
Emissions reductions – on farm: Less emissions per kilogram of milk solids
|Source : Fonterra|
- 98.7 per cent of Fonterra dairy farmers are guided by a nutrient budget – enabling better use of fertilizer and less nitrate / nitrous oxide loss to water / air
- 1 per cent per annum improvement since 1990 in kg of CO2 equivalent per kg milk solids produced because of better cows, better fodder and better farming
Optimisation of fertilizer use and manure and slurry management - France
|Source : IDF National Committee of France|
The National Program for the management of polluting agents of agricultural origin, in order to allow farmers located in high density French farming areas to have adequate effluent storage capacity to spread manure when appropriate and to improve the use of nitrogen. Technical accompaniment for the compliance of installations.
The program (1993-2007) concerned 80% of the organic nitrogen produced in vulnerable areas. A first evaluation in 2008 (another one is expected in 2012) showed a decrease of the nitrogen pressure of 30 to 40 kg/ha of soil receiving fertilizers, and reduction of fertilization with synthetic nitrogen of 10kg/ha of total cultivated area while maintaining the same yield. Water quality was also improved (decrease in nitrate concentration) in vulnerable areas.
Ministries of Agriculture and of Environment, accomplished on dairy farms
1993 - 2007
32 320 dairy farmers involved. Reduction of the use of artificial nitrogen fertilizers and public health benefits (water quality).
Emissions reductions - Greece
|Archivé||Source : IDF National Committee of Greece|
- Optimising animal feeding: remarkable progress has been done over the last 30 years in animal’ s feed composition, quality feedstuffs, balanced ration, etc.
- Optimising use of fertilisers: very high progress has been achieved
- Optimising manure management: mainly progress has been done in manure processing of other animals (pigs, poultry)
Impact of Dairy Reform on Emissions - Israel
|Archivé||Source : Israel Dairy Board|
In 1999, a reform package was initiated in the dairy sector, which continued until 2007. The main aims of the reform were:
- Encouraging dairy producers to become larger, more competitive and more efficient
- Preventing pollution from dairy farms and protecting the country's water sources by upgrading cowsheds and establishing environmental infrastructure
- Within the framework of the reform, strict criteria were formulated for the environment-friendly operation of dairy farms, largely based on guidelines developed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
- The guidelines relate to the:
- Establishment of proper treatment and disposal facilities including requirements for roofing
- Cement flooring
- Drainage systems to prevent release of manure and leachate into the environment
- Manure collection and containment facilities
- Separation of solids from the waste stream, and sewage treatment at different levels